34 Hearing that Jesus had silenced the Sadducees, the Pharisees got together.35 One of them, an expert in the law, tested him with this question: 36 “Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the Law?”

37 Jesus replied: “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.’ 38 This is the first and greatest commandment. 39 And the second is like it: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’ 40 All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments.”

Matthew 22:34-40

When asked which commandment of the law was most important, Jesus quoted the Shema (Deuteronomy 6:5) with the assertion that this was ‘the first and the greatest’ commandment.  Then Jesus followed up with another commandment that, He said,  was like it: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’


“All of the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments,” Jesus said.  So, it should not be a surprise to see these commands echoed in the beatitudes.


‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.’

How does a person love God with the totality of his or her being?  Turning to the Beatitudes of Matthew 5:1-12 we find a list of core attitudes of the heart for which the citizens of the kingdom of heaven must be known.

Contemplating an infinitely holy God we realize our brokenness and our reaction is poverty of spirit (vs. 3).  It is our sin that has separated us from God so we mourn the loss (vs. 4).  Turning to God for help we meekly choose to sacrifice our own will and strive to live by His with all we have (vs. 5).  To do this we hunger and thirst for God’s righteousness and not our own by feasting on His word, listening for Him in prayer and joining with other seekers as they worship Him and encourage each other (vs. 6).


Having addressed the most important commandment Jesus mentions that there is another command that ‘is like it’.  In fact, it is as important as the first command because it is not possible to love God without also loving other people who are also created in His image.

It is important to resist seeing the first part, loving God, as isolated or detached from the second part, loving one another.  The bridge links the two to highlight how they are compatible with each other, not to contrast them one against the other.

So, we find that the second part instructs us about how the first part works itself our in our interactions with other people.  In other words, as we love others as ourselves, we illustrate God loves others because of our love for God and our desire to be like Him.


“Love your neighbor as yourself” might simply be stated to love others the way that God loves you and other people.  And so, the second set of beatitudes instructs us both about God’s mercy and how we are to extend mercy to others (vs. 7).  God’s purity or holiness is without hidden agendas or deceitfulness; therefore, we strive to be like Him by keeping our focus upon Him as we serve others honestly, with integrity and without guile or trickery (vs. 8).

Loving others is also characterized by a desire to bring peace to conflicting people just as God has reconciled us to Himself through His Son, Jesus Christ (vs. 9 – see also 2 Corinthians 5:11-21).  Finally, loving others as God loves them goes against our natural tendencies of self-serving, self-preservation and self-promotion in order to please others.  Consequently, peacemakers will find themselves in situations where they are open to persecution, criticism and condemnation from others, just like Jesus did (vs. 10).


So, bridges are important tools for helping us relate one set of values with another.  They show us the importance of each and they link their interrelationships to each other.  This is especially true with Jesus’ teachings because “All of the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments.”  These two truths are timeless and they critically undergird our understanding of God’s love for us.


Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness,
    for they will be filled.

-Matthew 5:6

We are all familiar with hunger and thirst.  Physically it is a reality of life.  After 2-3 days of no fluids or 2-3 weeks of no nourishment

Question: how do we know when we are spiritually hungry and thirsty.  I have a theory about this.

Created in God’s image we are born with an innate, spiritual hunger and thirst for who we–humans, male and female–already are (Genesis 1:26-31) . This desire to satisfy our craving for God becomes distorted as we choose to satisfy ourselves independently of His will and write our own rules.

The desire never goes away.  By our choices, however, our sin leads us to distort and warp our desire for God into a god of our own making (Romans 1:18-32).


This is where the logical progression of the Beatitudes makes so much sense.  For those who have chosen to meekly submit their will to God’s will the natural question is, “What is God’s will?”

For the seeker of God’s will, Jesus is very plain: you must hunger and thirst for His righteousness.  Where can it be found?  The Holy Spirit provides at least three sources for discovering God’s righteousness: 1) God’s word, 2) prayer and 3) God’s people.  The promise is that pursuing God’s righteousness will lead to satisfaction.  There are at least 4 ways this is true:


First, to Jesus’ disciples, they had the unique opportunity to witness God’s righteousness embodied in Jesus Christ Himself, day-in, day-out, over a period of three years.  Gathered around Him in this specific setting, the disciples would soon realize that this was more than just going through the motions (Matthew 5:20).

Secondly, to the crowds that were gathering around Jesus and His disciples, Jesus’ teachings in the Sermon on the Mount left them astonished and amazed (Matthew 7:28-29).  Perhaps, at the time, it would convince them that not only could their won personal righteousness reach the perceived lofty nature of their religious leaders but, to be obedient to Jesus’ teachings, must exceed them.  Impossible!

Third, to fully understand the righteousness to which jesus referred would require a perspective gained only on the other side of the cross and the open tomb.  The apostle Paul provides that perspective again in 2 Corinthians 5:21, NIV): “God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.”

Finally, in Matthew 25:31-46 Jesus assures that those who have been pursuing God’s righteousness in this world will be ready for judgement day.  What is so intriguing about Jesus’ story is that those who are going to eternal life, like those who are destined for hell, can’t recall ever seeing Jesus in their daily ministry.  What separates them is the fact that the lambs were practicing God’s righteousness without an awareness of Jesus’ blessing.  Their transformation into righteous people came as they become more like their Father because of their desire to be like Him, not to earn most favored status.  The activities of these seekers of righteousness quickly reveals its nature in their pursuit of  justice for others.


So, the satisfaction of the search for righteousness comes when we choose to follow Jesus and He, through His sacrifice, declares us righteous.  Flowing out of our brokenness, mourning and meekness we then seek out the will of our Father through His word and prayer in the midst of fellow seekers who are also pursuing the Father’s will.  This hungering and thirsting for His will is a passion that leads us upon a quest to be like Him in such a way that it becomes who we are; second nature.

And so, our desire for Him is brought back to the desire that God has implanted in our hearts from the beginning: to see His image realized in our lives so we can be righteous like Him.  What is truly amazing is that God has already made us like Him because of Jesus; we are only striving to live up to that which He has already declared us to be!


Blessed are the meek,
    for they will inherit the earth.

-Matthew 5:5 (NIV)

In English, being meek can easily be misunderstood as ‘weak’.  For example, the Merriam-Webster online dictionary gives the following definitions: 1) enduring injury with patience and without resentment, 2) deficient in spirit and courage, and 3) not violent or strong.  When we turn to different translations of the word ‘meek’ (NIV, KJV) we come away with renderings as “gentle” (NASB) or “humble” (NLT, GNT).

Meekness: Power Under Control

The original Greek word stresses strength under control.  The best  illustration of true meekness is Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane:

Going a little farther, he fell with his face to the ground and prayed, “My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will.” – Matthew 26:39, NIV

The truth is that there is not an English word that truly represents the Greek original.  There are English words for ‘strength’ and there are English words for ‘gentle’.  Having the strength to act at will, yet choosing to restrain and to submit approximates words such as obedient, humble, and disciplined.


Meekness is a critical part of the Beatitudes that both builds upon mourning and opens the door to righteousness.  Beginning with recognizing the disparity between God’s holiness and our brokenness (poor in spirit) we are brokenhearted to realize that our sin has been the cause of that separation (mourning).  Undone, we realize that our Higher Power knows exactly what we need and He provides the cure through His Son who bears our penalty Himself.

In meekness we accept the fact that God’s will is best and we devote ourselves to surrendering our own will and submitting to Him.  How does a person submit to God’s will?  The answer begins a life-long, impassioned quest for learning His will and applying it to our daily walk; we pray and examine His word, hungering and thirsting for righteousness.


When Jesus promises that the meek “will inherit the earth” it is true that He is speaking directly to the end times when Jesus comes again (Revelation 21).  I would suggest, however, that there is a way of understanding this promise that is present and real.  As we submit to Gods will we find that there is no location in God’s creation where He has not already gone, nor is there any place where the human heart can go that God has not already been.

For the meek there is no place on heaven or earth that is excluded to them for God’s will leads them there.  From the darkest corners of the human heart to the most horrific circumstances on the face of the earth, God is there and His presence can be reflected most brightly when His children shine the light of His presence wherever they go (Matthew 5:14-16).

The Blessing of Mourning

“Blessed are those who mourn,
    for they will be comforted.” 

-Jesus-Matthew 5:4 (NIV)

Closely related to the previous beatitude (“Blessed are the poor in spirit”), to mourn is to grieve over the cause of separation between the most holy God and His creation: sin.  Genesis 3:8-9 suggests that God would spend time walking with Adam and Eve in the garden “in the cool of the day.” The tragic chain of events is described in Genesis 3 which concludes with a series of curses that include banishment from the garden of Eden and the Tree of Life.

The rest of Scripture is about God’s initiatives to restore that original relationship with mankind.  Kingdom people begin with acknowledging the insurmountable gap between the holiness of God and man’s yearning to live by his own rules and chart his own course.  This gap applies to every person who has ever lived from the beginning of time.

Mourning acknowledges the cause of that insurmountable gap which is our brokenness and propensity to offend God by our self-centered thoughts and actions.  Even when we make godly choices we are vulnerable to pride in what we believe to be our own  accomplishments.  This circular reasoning measures one’s own righteousness within the limited sphere of one’s own experience rather than within the infinite sphere of God’s holiness.  A way of illustrating this is found in the danger of prosperity.


It is tempting for us to mistakenly equate God’s blessing with prosperity.  James 1:10  warns that “…the rich should take pride in their humiliation….”  Jesus warns the church in Laodicea that they precariously believe they are rich, wealthy and in need of nothing when, indeed they are “…wretched, pitiful, poor, blind and naked” (Revelation 3:17).

In Matthew 19:16-30 a rich man comes to Jesus to inquire about the key to eternal life.  Having kept the commandments all of his life he is confident in his own righteous behavior.  Nonetheless, he feels that something is still lacking.  At this point Jesus instructs him to sell all he has, give it to the poor and to follow Him (vs. 21).  Matthew tells us that the rich man went away sad because of his great wealth (vs. 22).

Jesus takes this opportunity to tell His disciples about how difficult it is for the prosperous to enter the kingdom of heaven.  The disciples are astonished and exclaim: “Who then can be saved?” (vs. 25).  Jesus states clearly: “With man this is impossible…” and I am reminded of the first two beatitudes: “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven”  and “Blessed are those who mourn…” (Matthew 5:3-4a).


If poverty of spirit before a most holy God brings us into the kingdom, then mourning about our sin–from which it is impossible to save ourselves–brings comfort. This oxymoron can only have one answer, which Jesus provides to the disciples’ question “Who then can be saved?”

Matthew tells us that “Jesus looked at them and said, “With man this is impossible, but with God all things are possible.””  This is truly an astonishing statement for it is the One Whom we offend Who, Himself, extends us comfort.  

How does God do this?  Paul answers this beautifully in Colossians 2:9-15.

For in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form, 10 and in Christ you have been brought to fullness. He is the head over every power and authority. 11 In him you were also circumcised with a circumcision not performed by human hands. Your whole self ruled by the flesh[b] was put off when you were circumcised by[c] Christ, 12 having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through your faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead.

13 When you were dead in your sins and in the uncircumcision of your flesh, God made you[d] alive with Christ. He forgave us all our sins, 14 having canceled the charge of our legal indebtedness, which stood against us and condemned us; he has taken it away, nailing it to the cross. 15 And having disarmed the powers and authorities, he made a public spectacle of them, triumphing over them by the cross.

This is most certainly Good News to the poor in spirit kingdom people who mourn over their sin and find comfort in Christ.

Poor in Spirit

“Blessed are the poor in spirit,
    for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Jesus – Matthew 5:3 (NIV)

To be blessed by God is more than just being happy.  To be blessed by God does, indeed, make one happy.  It only makes sense that the created person would desire to please his or her Creator.  Jesus is explicit as He teaches His disciples the pathway to God’s blessing in eight elegant* principles (Matthew 5:3-12).

The first of these eight principles specifies poverty of spirit as the first step towards God’s blessing.  This principle was not a new revelation.  It has always been an essential quality of those who would receive the blessing of God.  Here are just some of the biblical characters who exhibited this quality of brokenness:

  • Abraham (Genesis 18:27)
  • Jacob (Genesis 32:10)
  • Moses (Exodus 3:11; 4:10-12)
  • King David (Psalms 51:17; 1 Chronicles 29:14)
  • King Solomon (1 Kings 3:7)
  • Job (Job 42:5-6)
  • Isaiah (Isaiah 6:5)
  • John the Baptist (John 1:27; 3:30; Luke 7:28; Mark 9:35
  • The Tax Collector (Luke 18:13-14)
  • The Roman Centurion (Luke 7:6-9)
  • Simon Peter (Luke 5:8)
  • The Apostle Paul (Romans 7:18; 2 Corinthians 4:7; 1 Corinthians 3:6-7; 1 Timothy 1:15-16)

It would be hard to imagine a person exhibiting a proud and haughty spirit when suddenly confronted by God’s immediate, visible presence.  The challenge for us is to maintain that sense of His abiding presence and our own brokenness.


The truth is that before a holy God no one can stand in His presence  because, as Paul stated, “There is no one righteous, not even one” (Romans 3:10).  The real contrast this first beatitude forces  is between those who acknowledge their brokenness and humble themselves accordingly and those who do not and will not.

For those who seek God’s blessing this first beatitude is fundamental to entrance into the kingdom of God.  It is where God-followers strive to live because it is where we all exist.

*  I use the word ‘elegant’ to describe these beatitudes in the sense of a beautiful cut diamond set upon a black velvet surface to enhance its beauty.


Kingdom Bookends

Bookends are used to keep books together.  They also metaphorically describe how we keep other objects together.  In the gospel of Matthew there are two important kingdom bookends that help us define the contents of the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew 5-7.


The first bookend is in Matthew 5:1-2 where Jesus sees the crowds and goes up to the mountain.  Here his disciples gather around Him to listen to Jesus’ as He begins to teach them.

The second bookend is Matthew 7:28-29 where Jesus’ audience has expanded beyond His disciples to include the crowds.  They have been listening in and are amazed at Jesus’ authoritative teaching.

These bookends tell us that what Jesus has to say is very important.  We know this because just before the final bookend in Matthew 7:28-29, Jesus contrasts two groups of people.

In Matthew 7:24-25 He addresses those who listen and apply His words to their lives.  Jesus describes them as wise builders who anchor their foundation upon a rock.  Their building will stand firm in the storms of life.

In contrast, in Matthew 7:26-27 Jesus describes those who also listen but do not put His words into practice.  These people are like unwise builders who place their foundation upon sandy soil.  When the storms come their house will not survive.


At the very beginning of the first bookend Jesus launches into 8 beatitudes that fall between two other bookends.  The first tells His audience that being poor in spirit is the way to the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 5:3).  The concluding beatitude addresses those who are “persecuted because of righteousness” for theirs is, once again, the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 5:10).

These bookends tell us that between them are listed the crucial qualities of people who are  citizens of the kingdom of heaven.  Those qualities include poverty of spirit, mourning over sin, meekness, righteousness, being merciful, having purity of heart, being makers of peace and suffering for the sake of righteousness.


The Sermon on the Mount is important material for followers of Jesus Christ for at least three reasons.  First, Jesus said their application would make the difference between those who survive the storms of life and those who do not.  Second, for those who are citizens of the kingdom of heaven, the sermon provides a roadmap to maturity in the kingdom.

The third reason is anchored in the next-to-the-last parable Jesus used to underline their importance.  In Matthew 7:21-23 Jesus tells us that there will be people who appear at Judgement Day, thinking that they are, indeed, citizens of the kingdom of heaven.  They will come before Jesus pointing to the many things they have done to verify their eternal citizenship.  Jesus’ shocking response to them should be sobering to us all as He says, “I never knew you. Away from me, you evildoers!” (vs. 23).


Perhaps there could be no greater tragedy than to go through life with a false sense of confidence in one’s salvation only to find, in the end, that one had missed the entire point of kingdom citizenry: knowing Christ and being known by Him.  Herein lies the power of the Sermon on the Mount.




The word ‘demands’ is a word of strength.  It assumes that the person with demands is in a position of power and control.  Conversely, a person who is without power and control has no demands.


This contrast exactly describes God’s relationship to His creation.  Indeed, both Isaiah (29:16; 64:8) and Jeremiah (18:6) informed Paul’s metaphorical reference to the total power of the Potter and the absence of power of the clay (Romans 9:21).

In every aspect of God’s creation He is indeed on total control; His power is absolute; supreme; sovereign; unchallenged.  With a word the universe came to exist (Genesis 1).  With a word it will be brought to an end (2 Peter 3:7,10-13).  There is only one aspect of His creation that He has chosen to give the temporary  right to choose: mankind.


Demands?  They are still totally one-sided; God-sided.  The demands of God’s creation? The only ones available are those they are given by God and only for the duration of time that He wills.  He sets the boundaries and the conditions of compliance and obedience

Bottom line: what God says goes. God has every right to make demands upon His own creation, including mankind.  And those demands are clear and understandable.


So, when Jesus–Who, as God Himself, obeyed His Father’s commands (John 12:49-50)–tells us to obey His commandments out of love (John 14:15, 23) it is important to 1) search out His  commands, 2) identify them and 3) obey them.  The option of saying no and the freedom to demand independence is temporary, limited, fully under His control and doomed to fail.

This is a great paradox.  God tells us through His Son, Jesus Christ, that those who claim to have no demands are the ones who will be blessed and will inherit the kingdom of God.  To recognize Who is God and who is not God is very important to every person.  It is God who makes the demands.   To those who accept His demands, Jesus tells us they will be blessed.

Anchors: Luke’s Christmas Story

During our adult class on Christmas Eve this year (December 24, 2017) we will read the first four chapters of the Gospel of Luke.  Anchors in Jewish Scripture are what we would expect for the coming Messiah and Luke’s account delivers.


Although Luke was writing his gospel account of Jesus for a primarily Gentile audience, I have been overwhelmed by the degree to which Luke anchors His story in the Old Testament.  His direct references to “The Law” and important people in Israel’s history combine with allusions and inferences to make a powerful connections with Jesus’ entry into the world and His solid relationship with the Jewish people.

For example, in just the first two chapters of Luke’s Gospel, look at the references to the Law of Moses:

  • 1:5 – Zechariah is a descendent of Aaron, of the priestly division of Abijah
  • 1:5 – Elizabeth is a descent of Aaron
  • 1:6 – Zechariah and his wife Elizabeth – Both of them were righteous in the sight of God, observing all the Lord’s commands and decrees blamelessly.
  • 1:15 John is to live according to the Nazarite Law
  • 1:15 – John is to be great in the sight of the Lord
  • 1:15 – John will be filled with the Holy Spirit
  • 1:16 – John will go forth in the spirit and power of Elijah
  • 2:22 – purification rites required in the Law of Moses
  • 2:23 – as it is written in the Law of the Lord
  • 2:24 – in keeping with what is said in the Law of the Lord
  • 2:25 – Simeon “was righteous and devout”
  • 2:27 – Jesus’ parents bring Jesus to the temple to do for him what the custom of the Law required. (Ex. 13:1-16)
  • 2:37 – Anna was a widow at 84 years of age who worshipped, fasted and prayed at the temple night and day since her husband died after 7 years of marriage.
  • 2:39 – Joseph and Mary had done everything required by the Law of the Lord.
  • 2:41 – Jesus’ parents went to Jerusalem for the Festival of the Passover every year, according to the custom

In addition, Luke highlights the centrality of the temple:

  • 1:9, 21, 22 – Zechariah’s time in the temple where Gabriel meets him
  • 2:22 – Jesus is presented in the temple
  • 2:27 – Simeon comes out of the temple to meet Mary, Joseph and Jesus in the temple courtyard of the women
  • 2:37 – Anna is in the temple, worshipping night and day, fasting and praying
  • 2:41 – Jesus parents go to Jerusalem every year for Passover
  • 2:46 – Jesus is found in the temple courts with the teachers asking questions and listening

Indeed, Luke sets the stage for the gospel of Jesus Christ by anchoring us in:

  • The Old Testament
  • The Temple
  • The Law of Moses
  • Parents of John and Jesus are devout in obeying the Law
  • The Holy Spirit


In Genesis 17 God changes Abram’s name (exalted father) to Abraham (father of many) and Sarai’s name (my princess) to Sarah (a princess) and God institutes, with Abraham, circumcision as a sign of God’s covenant with Abraham and his descendants.  Eight days after his birth every male is to be circumcised according to the law of Moses.

Luke 2:21 – circumcised on the 8th day, when it was time to circumcise him, he was named Jesus, the name the angel had given him before he had been conceived.


In Leviticus 12 God tells Moses that for the first seven days after childbirth a woman is ceremonially unclean until the 8th day when she is to have her son circumcised.  Then, after another 33 days she must take part in a purification ceremony in the temple, offering a sacrifice.

6 “‘When the days of her purification for a son or daughter are over, she is to bring to the priest at the entrance to the tent of meeting a year-old lamb for a burnt offering and a young pigeon or a dove for a sin offering.[a] 7 He shall offer them before the Lord to make atonement for her, and then she will be ceremonially clean from her flow of blood.

“‘These are the regulations for the woman who gives birth to a boy or a girl. 8 But if she cannot afford a lamb, she is to bring two doves or two young pigeons, one for a burnt offering and the other for a sin offering. In this way the priest will make atonement for her, and she will be clean.’”

Luke 2:22 – when the time came for the purification rites required by the law of Moses


Water to blood, Frogs, Gnats, Flies, Livestock, Boils, Hail, Locusts and Darkness.  In Exodus chapters 7-11 we are told of the 9 plagues that came upon the Egyptians to convince them to let their slaves for 430 years, the children of Israel, go free.  Every plague touched every Egyptian while the Israelites were completely exempted.  Each time, Pharaoh refused to let God’s people go…that is until the 10th plague.  One night in April, the Lord came through all of Egypt and took the life of the first born sons and animals of the land.  The Israelites were exempted because they each had placed above the door to their home, the blood of a lamb.

In Exodus 13, to remember this night, God instituted the Passover meal that would remind everyone of the night that the Lord passed over their homes because of the blood of the lamb on their doorposts.  It was also on that night that God instructed all Israelites to come to dedicate their first born sons to Him and redeem them back from Him.

In Numbers 18:15-16 we are told that the parents must dedicate their first-born to the Lord and then they may redeem him back from the lord for a ceremonial price of five shekels of silver.  As Joseph and Mary are following through with their ceremonial requirements….



I imagine Joseph holding out the five shekels of silver to give to the priests in the temple as he was supposed to do (Luke 2:27).  As he is just about to do this an older priest named Simeon suddenly comes out of the temple into the court, and he holds the baby Jesus in his arms proclaiming:

“Sovereign Lord, as you have promised,
    you may now dismiss your servant in peace.
For my eyes have seen your salvation,
    which you have prepared in the sight of all nations:
a light for revelation to the Gentiles,
    and the glory of your people Israel.” (Luke 2:28-32)

While Mary and Joseph are shocked and marveling, Simeon turns directly to Mary and announces:

“This child is destined to cause the falling and rising of many in Israel, and to be a sign that will be spoken against, so that the thoughts of many hearts will be revealed. And a sword will pierce your own soul too.”

Meanwhile, Anna walks into the temple court area where Joseph, Mary, baby Jesus and Simeon are and she begins to announce “He’s here!” to everyone else in the courtyard.  “The Messiah has arrived!

What about the 5 shekels of silver?  To be so particular about the ceremonial particulars that Jesus’ parents observed, the five shekels are never specifically mentioned.  If Simeon or another priest ever received the money it is not recorded.

Perhaps it is because the full procedure did not occur as it would have for a normal child.  Like Samuel, Jesus is being given to God by Joseph but he was not redeemed back to Joseph and Mary.

Jesus remained dedicated to the Lord.*

The following notes from the Jewish Encyclopedia underline the importance of this practice:

Every Israelite is obliged to redeem his first-born son thirty days after the latter’s birth. The mother is exempt from this obligation. The son, if the father fails to redeem him, has to redeem himself when he grows up (Ḳid. 29b). The sum of redemption as given in the Bible (Num. xviii. 16) is five shekels, which should be given to the priest. This sum may be given either in money or in valuables, but not in real estate, slaves, or promissory notes. The priest may afterward return the money to the father, although such practise is not recommended by the Rabbis. At the redemption the father of the child pronounces the blessing, “Blessed art thou . . . and commandeth us concerning the redemption of a son,” and then also the blessing of “she-heḥeyanu.” It is customary to prepare a feast in honor of the occasion, at which the ceremony is made impressive by a dialogue between the priest and the father of the child. (Jewish Encyclopedia, ( “Redemption of First-Born”)

Jesus was dedicated to God but He was not redeemed by Joseph!  With this, Luke sets the stage for the bar mitzvah of Jesus at the temple (his parents had taken Him there every year (Luke 2:41)).  Where else would God’s Son be found except in the presence of the priests, the teachers of the law, asking questions and listening to their answers.  Of course, everyone was amazed at his understanding and His answers and, of course, his parents are astonished (Luke 2:48).

With incredible mastery, Luke relates the story of Jesus’ early years with a crescendo that brings us to chapter 3 and the introduction of John the Baptist who would be anchored firmly in the fulfillment of Isaiah’s 800 year old prophecy (Isaiah 40:3-5).  Moreover, Luke tells us that John began his ministry during a specific point in history, located specifically in the country around the Jordan River for a specific purpose: “preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins” (Luke 3:3).


Yes, Luke was likely writing to a primarily Gentile audience.  And, of course, they needed to know what their Jewish brothers and sisters had already realized: Jesus was the total and complete fulfillment of ancient prophecies.


*Craddock, Fred. Luke. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching.


In his book, Sit, Walk, Stand Watchman Nee provides incredible insights into Paul’s letter to the church in Ephesus.  ‘Sit’ in Ephesians 1-3 encourages us to sit down and listen to what God has done forus.  In Ephesians 4:1-6:9 Nee observes a shift from sitting to walking lives of gratitude that reflect the result of what God has done for us as we live out our daily lives.  Finally, in Ephesians 6:10-24 Paul tells us it is time to stand and prepare for war, concluding with the admonition to pray.


Beginning at the end of October we started working through the various aspects of living the Christian life that are detailed by Paul.

Walk in Unity and Maturity (Eph. 4:1-16)

Walk in the Light (Eph. 4:17-5:14)

  • Think Differently (4:17-24)
  • Care for One Another (4:25-32)
  • Imitate God (Eph. 5:1-14)

Walk in the Spirit (5:15-6:9)

  • Be Filled With The Spirit (5:15-20)
  • Love Like Christ (5:21-33)
  • Honor One Another (6:1-9)


With the final two aspects of walking in the Spirit (Ephesians. 5:21-6:9), Paul addresses three main pillars of society that are to be subsumed to the Lordship of Jesus Christ: marriage, family and society.  The characteristic, Christ-centered quality of the church is to be one of submission to one another (Eph. 5:21).


Paul appeals to husbands and wives who submit to one another out of reverence to Christ (Eph. 5:22-30).  Husbands take the lead in providing a headship that chooses to lay down his rights to lead as a servant, to provide spiritual leadership that is holy, cleansing, and oriented towards making her ‘radiant’ (vs. 27).  With this kind of loving and caring headship the husband hopes for the respect of His wife (vs. 33).


Children are to submit to parents because it is a command from God that includes a specific promise: “so that it may go well with you and that you may enjoy long life on the earth” (Deuteronomy 5:16). Furthermore, fathers specifically work towards a Christ-centered love and discipline that does not exasperate (vs. 4).


In Greek and Roman societies the rights of slaves were going through positive transformations.  Perhaps their rights were given impetus, in part, through Paul’s instruction to Christian slaves and masters (Markus Barth, Ephesians 4-6, Anchor Yale Bible Commentary).  Translate to today’s employer/employee relationships and we close the loop to understand that our foremost employer is Christ Himself.  To honor Him we do our best to honor one another as equals.


Even today these simple guidelines have proven to be challenging in every realm, across cultures and in societal norms.  One has only to wonder what the world would be like with a voluntary egalitarianism that strives to serve others.

Looking for a church?  Perhaps one of the best predictors of congregational satisfaction for a seeker can be found in churches that exhibit these qualities among one another as well as to others.

“And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.”

– Jesus (John 12:32)


They say that “Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery.”  In Ephesians 5:1 Paul encourages his readers to “be imitators of God.”


In our study of the first 3 chapters of Ephesians over the last few weeks we have covered the first half of the book.  Paul tells us that by God’s power, strength and might Jesus was raised from the dead and seated at God’s right hand (Eph. 1:18-21).  More than that, God also made us “alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved), and raised us up with Him, and seated us with Him in the heavenly places, in Christ Jesus” (Eph. 2:4-6, NASB).

Simply stated, Paul is telling us “Sit down and listen while I tell you what God has done for you!”  Chapters 1 through 3 are an incredible review of God’s divine plan from before the beginning of time.  Center stage: Christ and the church (Eph. 3:20-21).

Sitting down and resting in what God has done for us in Christ is so important!


Currently we are in the midst of chapters 4 and 5 of Ephesians. Here Paul places a great emphasis upon how we walk all day, every day.  In fact, Paul literally uses a word we literally translated as “walk” to describe our lives once we have been seated in God’s throne room.  He contrasts between the way we once walked, in the futility of our minds (Eph. 4:17), and the new way we walk, renewed in the spirit of our minds (Eph. 4:23-24).  Likewise, on Sunday mornings, we will spend time on more practical application.

It is in this context that Paul encourages us all to be ‘imitators of God.’ This truly is the sincerest form of flattery plus a few other things like honor, glory and praise.  In his book, Just Like Jesus (1998) Max Lucado gives a great illustration of what this looks like. He asks a simple question: “What if, for twenty-four hours, Jesus wakes up in your bed, walks in your shoes, lives in your house, assumes your schedule?”  Essentially, He lives your life with His heart.  Would anyone notice a change?

This intriguing question is a great focus point for personal meditation, confession, and repentance.  But, more than that, it is a great tool for contemplating the changes that need to occur in our lives.  That’s one reason I love the subtitle of Lucado’s book: “God loves you just the way you are, but he refuses to leave you that way.  He wants you to be Just Like Jesus.”

Ephesians 1-3 keep us from falling into despair when we contemplate fulfilling the challenges Paul places before us in chapters 4-6.  Learning to imitate God is an overwhelming task that is greater than we are.

Of course, God knew that.

This is why He sent His Son, “while we were yet sinners.”


Lord willing, by December, we will be concluding our study in Ephesians.   We will be talking about how God’s actions (ch. 1-3) have changed believer’s daily lives (chapters 4-6:9).  These people are now ready to make a stand and pray!

Jesus is Our Shoreline